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English Help for foreign members - Orthograph/Grammar

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Post by Cornelia February 19th 2006, 10:20 pm

Hello everyone

As we know, for many members here, English is not their mother tongue (it's my case) and some of them have some difficulties with English.

So, to help these members to improve their English, I start this topic where everyone can post grammar/conjugation rules and different tips.

This topic must stay clean.
You can post only if you :
- want to add a grammar rule, a tip, a tool, etc. to contribute
- want to correct something in what has been already posted


---------------------
To begin, let's start with conjugation which is very important when we learn a second tongue.


SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

This is the first tense we learn when we begin to learn English

In general, when we conjugate a verb in the simple present tense, the spelling doesn't change at all, excepted for the 3rd person singular where we must add an s to the verb.

For example, with the verb to love

    I love
    You love
    He/She loves
    We love
    You love
    They love



Notice

1- If the verb finishes by o, s, sh, ch or x, you must add es to the verb when conjugated to the 3rd person singular

Examples

    To do -------------- He does
    To go -------------- She goes
    To access ------------- He accesses
    To finish --------------- She finishes
    To reach -------------- He reaches
    To wax ---------------- She waxes



2- If the verb finishes by a y which is preceded by a consonent, the y becomes ies when conjugated to the 3rd person singular.

Examples

    To reply --------------- He replies
    To fly ------------------- He flies
    To try ------------------ She tries
    To cry ------------------ She cries




Exceptions

There are verbs which are exceptions to the rules. The auxiliary verbs to be and to have are good examples of exceptions.


To be (the spelling changes radically)

    I am
    You are
    He/She is
    We are
    You are
    They are



To have (Irregularity in its spelling in the 3rd person singular)

    I have
    You have
    He/She has
    We have
    You have
    They have


Last edited by on March 28th 2006, 3:24 am; edited 1 time in total
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Post by Cornelia February 21st 2006, 7:11 pm

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

In general, when we conjugate a verb in the past tense, we add a ed or a d at the end.

Examples :

- to love ----------------------> loved
- to change -------------------> changed
- to post ----------------------> posted
- to surround -----------------> surrounded
- to call -----------------------> called
- to order ---------------------> ordered
- to talk -----------------------> talked


Pronounciation of the "ed"

Depending of the last letters of the verb, the pronounciation of the ed differs :

1- If the verbs finishes by a d or a t, the ed is fully pronounced

2- If the verb finishes by a k, s, sh, g, ch, p or f, the "ed" is pronounced like a "t

3- If the verb finished by another letter else, the "ed" is pronounced like a d"


Notice

1- If the verb's last letter is an y which is preceded by a consonent, the y becomes i when conjugated in the past tense

Examples

    To cry ----------> cried
    To try ------------> tried
    To reply -----------> replied
    To carry -----------> carried
    To worry -----------> worried



2- In some case, verbs which the last letter is m, r, n, p, b, g or t must have the last letter doubled when conjugated in the past tense. This is applicated ONLY if the vowel which precedes the last letter is preceded by a consonent.

Examples

[list]
To stun ----------> stunned
To ban -----------> banned
To plan ----------> planned
To stir -----------> stirred
To blur ----------> blurred
To jam ----------> jammed
To trim ----------> trimmed
To spot ----------> spotted
To chat ----------> chatted
To stop ----------> stopped
To drop ----------> dropped
To grab ----------> grabbed
To drag ----------> dragged
To tag ------------> tagged
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Post by Cornelia February 21st 2006, 7:11 pm

Past tense - Irregular verbs

In general, verbs finish by "ed", but there are verbs which do not follow this rule. These verbs are irregular verbs.

You can easily find a list of them in an English dictionary or in a Besherelle.

I will list the most current ones here, with their past tense form and their past participle form (used with auxiliary verbs).


Verb --------- Past tense ---------------- Past participle

To awake -------- awoke ---------------------- awoken
To be ------------- was, were ------------------ been
To bear ----------- bore ------------------------ born
To beat ----------- beat ------------------------ beaten
To become ------- became -------------------- become
To begin ---------- began ---------------------- begun
To bend ----------- bent ------------------------ bent
To bet ------------- bet or betted ------------- bet or betted
To bid ------------- bid or bade --------------- bid or bidden
To bite ------------ bit --------------------------- bitten
To bleed ---------- bled ------------------------- bled
To blow ----------- blew ------------------------ blown
To break ---------- broke ----------------------- broken
To breed ---------- bred ------------------------ bred
To bring ----------- brought -------------------- brought
To build ----------- built ------------------------- built
To burn ----------- burnt or burned ---------- burnt or burned
To buy ------------ bought ---------------------- bought
To cast ------------ cast ------------------------- cast
To catch ---------- caught ---------------------- caught
To choose -------- chose ----------------------- choosen
To come ---------- came ------------------------ come
To cost ------------ cost ------------------------- cost
To cut ------------- cut --------------------------- cut
To deal ------------ dealt ------------------------ dealt
To dig ------------- dug -------------------------- dug
To do -------------- did -------------------------- done
To draw ----------- drew ------------------------ drawn
To dream --------- dreamed or dreamt ------ dreamed or dreamt
To drink ----------- drank ----------------------- drunk
To drive ----------- drove ----------------------- driven
To eat ------------- ate -------------------------- eaten
To fall -------------- fell -------------------------- fallen
To feed ------------ fed -------------------------- fed
To feel ------------- felt -------------------------- felt
To fight ------------ fought ---------------------- fought
To find ------------- found ----------------------- found
To flee ------------- fled ------------------------- fled
To fly --------------- flew ------------------------ flown
To forbid ---------- forbade -------------------- forbidden
To forget ---------- forgot ---------------------- forgotten
To forgive --------- forgave -------------------- forgiven
To freeze ---------- froze ----------------------- frozen
To get ------------- got -------------------------- gotten
To give ------------ gave ------------------------ given
To go -------------- went ------------------------ gone
To grow ----------- grew ------------------------ grown
To hang ----------- hung or hanged ---------- hung or hanged
To have ----------- had ------------------------- had
To hear ----------- heard ----------------------- heard
To hide ------------ hid -------------------------- hidden
To hit -------------- hit --------------------------- hit
To hold ------------ held ------------------------- held
To hurt ------------ hurt ------------------------- hurt
To keep ----------- kept ------------------------- kept
To know ----------- knew ----------------------- known
To lead ------------ led -------------------------- led
To learn ----------- learnt or learned --------- learnt or learned
To leave ----------- left -------------------------- left
To lend ------------ lent ------------------------- lent
To let -------------- let --------------------------- let
To light ------------ lit or lighted --------------- lit or lighted
To lose ------------ lost -------------------------- lost
To make ---------- made ------------------------ made
To mean ---------- meant ----------------------- meant
To meet ----------- met -------------------------- met
To mistake -------- mistook -------------------- mistaken
To pay ------------- paid ------------------------- paid
To put -------------- put -------------------------- put
To quit ------------- quit or quitted ------------ quit or quitted
To read ------------ read ------------------------ read
To ride ------------- rode ------------------------ ridden
To ring ------------- rang ------------------------ rung
To rise ------------- rose ------------------------ risen
To run ------------- ran -------------------------- run
To see ------------- saw ------------------------- seen
To seek ----------- sought ---------------------- sought
To sell ------------- sold ------------------------- sold
To send ----------- sent ------------------------- sent
To set ------------- set --------------------------- set
To shake ---------- shook ---------------------- shaken
To shine ----------- shone ---------------------- shone
To shoot ----------- shot ------------------------ shot
To show ----------- showed -------------------- shown
To shut ------------ shut ------------------------- shut
To sing ------------ sang ------------------------- sung
To sink ------------- sank ------------------------ sunk
To sit --------------- sat -------------------------- sat
To slay ------------- slew ------------------------ slain
To sleep ----------- slept ------------------------ slept
To slide ------------ slid -------------------------- slid
To smell ----------- smelt or smelled ---------- smelt or smelled
To speak ---------- spoke ----------------------- spoken
To speed ---------- sped ------------------------ sped
To spell ------------ spelt ------------------------ spelt
To spend ---------- spent ----------------------- spent
To spill ------------- spilt or spilled ------------- spilt or spilled
To spin ------------ spun ------------------------- spun
To spit ------------- spat ------------------------- spat
To split ------------ split -------------------------- split
To spoil ----------- spoiled or spoilt ------------ spoiled or spoilt
To spread -------- spread ----------------------- spread
To stand ---------- stood ------------------------ stood
To steal ----------- stole ------------------------- stolen
To stick ----------- stuck ------------------------- stuck
To sting ----------- stung ------------------------ stung
To stink ----------- stank ------------------------ stunk
To strike ---------- struck ----------------------- struck or stricken
To swear --------- swore ----------------------- sworn
To sweep -------- swept ------------------------ swept
To swim ---------- swam ------------------------ swum
To swing --------- swung ----------------------- swung
To take ----------- took ------------------------- taken
To teach ---------- taught ---------------------- taught
To tear ------------ tore ------------------------- torn
To tell ------------- told -------------------------- told
To think ----------- tought ---------------------- thought
To throw ---------- threw ----------------------- thrown
To understand --- understood --------------- understood
To wake ---------- woke or waked ----------- woken or waked
To wear ---------- wore ------------------------ worn
To win ------------ won ------------------------- won
To withdraw ----- withdrew ------------------ withdrawn
To write ---------- wrote ----------------------- writen
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Post by Cornelia February 26th 2006, 10:22 pm

Simple future tense

This tense is very simple to use.

Here is the form of a verb conjugated in the future tense :

Pronoun or noun + will + verb

Examples :

    I will do
    You will edit
    Gizmo will repair
    Katt will translate
    The cat will hunt
    They will go
    We will sing
    She will leave



Notice : We can use this following form, but it's a little more complicated

Pronoun or noun + To be, conjugated in present tense + going to + verb

Examples

    I am going to do
    You are going to edit
    Gizmo is going to repair
    Katt is going to translate
    The cat is going to hunt
    They is going to go
    We are going to sing
    She is going to leave



----------------------------

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

We don't have any "present continuous" in French, but to give an idea to French people about how to use this tense : It's as if you say in French "en train de *verbe à l'infinitif*". So this is to talk about something you do right now, and this action/state began in the past and this will finish in the future.

Here is the form to use :

Pronoun or noun + To be, conjugated in simple present + verb witn "ing"

The best example, as I write this post, is this :
I am writing a post about future tense and present continuous.
.

Other examples

    I am cleaning a polluted topic
    You are seeking for help
    Gizmo is repairing a bug
    Katt is translating a tutorial
    They are chatting via MSN
    We are eating cashews
    She is getting tired



NOTICE

In some cases, verbs who finish by a consonent have this letter doubled when we conjugate the verb in the present continuous tense. It is applicated only if the consonent is preceded by a vowel which is preceded by another consonent.

Examples

    chatting
    grabbing
    stabbing
    stunning
    getting
    stopping
    shopping
    stirring
    logging
    jamming
    planning
    grinning



---------------------------

CONDITIONAL PRESENT

The use of conditional is pretty simple. Two auxiliary verbs are generally used : Would (fr : Vouloir au conditionnel) and Should (fr : Devoir au conditionnel).

We use this form to conjugate a verb in conditionnal :

Pronoun or noun + Should ou would + Verb

Examples

    I would do
    She would cry
    Katt should translate
    He should rest
    He would sing
    They would leave
    You should edit
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Post by Cornelia March 9th 2006, 11:42 pm

Pronouns used in 3rd person singular

Some non-English people are confused about the pronoun they have to use in the 3rd person singular.

Here is when each one have to be used :

He : Used if you talk about a male person. Sometimes, we also use it for our male pets.

She : Used if you talk about a femal person. Sometimes, we also use it for our female pets.

It : Used if we talk about objects. Also used for non-familiar animals.
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Post by Cornelia March 28th 2006, 3:21 am

The use of A / AN

Some French and foreign people have some difficulties to decide if they have to use A or AN for an unspecific noun.

A : Used if the noun or the adjective preceding the noun begins by a consonent.

Examples :
- A dog
- A playful kitten


AN : Used if the noun or the adjective preceding the noun begins by a vowel.

Examples :
- An administrator
- An existing topic
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Post by Cornelia April 5th 2006, 11:44 pm

VOCABULARY FOR FRENCH PEOPLE

For French people, here's a list of different terms we frequently use in the support forum and in computers-related domains in general. / Pour les francophones, voici une liste de termes fréquemment utilisés dans l'entraide et dans le domaine de l'informatique en général.


Accéder -------------------------> To access
Accès ---------------------------> Access
Accessibilité ---------------------> Accessibility
Accueil -------------------------> Home
Actualiser, rafraîchir ----------> To refresh
Administrateur -----------------> Administrator
Administrer --------------------> To administer
Annonce ------------------------> Announcement
Autoriser (permettre) ---------> To allow
Avatar --------------------------> Avatar
Bande passante ----------------> Bandwidth
Banni ---------------------------> Banned
Bannière -----------------------> Banner
Bannir --------------------------> To ban
Base de données --------------> Database
Cacher --------------------------> To hide
Calendrier ----------------------> Calendar
Case (à cocher) ----------------> Checkbox
Catégorie -----------------------> Category
Citation -------------------------> Quote
Citer ----------------------------> To quote
Compte ------------------------> Account
Connexion (au forum) --------> Log-in
Corriger ------------------------> To correct
Curseur ------------------------> Cursor
Déconnexion (au forum) -----> Log out
Déplacer -----------------------> To move
Disque dur ---------------------> Hard drive
Diviser -------------------------> To split
S'enregistrer, s'inscrire ------> To register
Éditer --------------------------> To edit
En ligne ------------------------> Online
En-tête -------------------------> Header
Envoyer (un message) -------> To send
FAI -----------------------------> ISP
Feuille de style (CSS) ----------> Stylesheet
Fichier --------------------------> File
Fondateur ----------------------> Founder
Fournisseur d'accès internet --> Internet service provider
Fusionner -----------------------> To merge
Galerie --------------------------> Gallery
Gérer ---------------------------> To manage
Gestion -------------------------> Management
Graphisme ---------------------> Graphic art
Groupe (d'utilisateurs) --------> Usergroup, group
Hébergement ------------------> Hosting
Héberger -----------------------> To host
Hébergeur ---------------------> Host (image host, file host, etc.)
Horloge ------------------------> Clock
Hors ligne ----------------------> Offline
Image --------------------------> Image, Picture, pic
Insérer -------------------------> To insert
Interdire -----------------------> To forbid, to disallow
Interdit -------------------------> Forbidden
Invisible ------------------------> Hidden
Lien -----------------------------> Link
Logiciel -------------------------> Software (sometimes shortened to "soft")
Logiciel gratuit/Gratuiciel ---------> Freeware (free like in "free beer")
Logiciel libre --------------------> Free software (free like in "free speech")
Logiciel propriétaire -------------> Proprietary software (opposite of "free software")
Matériel (informatique) ----------> Hardware
Mémoire cache -----------------> Cache memory
Message privé (MP) -----------> Private message (PM)
Mise à jour ---------------------> Update
Modérateur ---------------------> Moderator
Modérer -------------------------> To moderate
Mot de passe -------------------> Password
Navigateur (IE, FF, netscape) -> Browser
Ordinateur ----------------------> Computer
Panne de serveur --------------> Server downtime
Panneau d'administration ------> Administration panel
Pied de page -------------------> Footer
Plagiat ---------------------------> Plagiarism
Portail ---------------------------> Portal
Post-it ---------------------------> Sticky
Profil ----------------------------> Profile
Programmation ------------------> Programing
Pseudo --------------------------> Username
Publicité -------------------------> Advertising
Rang ----------------------------> Rank
Règles ---------------------------> Rules
Répondre ------------------------> Reply
Réponse (à une question) -----> Answer
Serveur -------------------------> Server
Signature -----------------------> Signature, sign, sig
Sous-forum ---------------------> Subforum
Sujet (ou topic) -----------------> Topic, thread
Sujet-traceur --------------------> Shadow topic
Supprimer -----------------------> To delete
Système d'exploitation (Windows, Linux, Mac) --> Operating system
Traduction -----------------------> Translation
Traduire --------------------------> To translate
Up (remonter topic) -------------> Bump
Verrouiller -----------------------> To lock, to close
Vol de créations -----------------> Art theft
Vol d'image ----------------------> Image theft


This post will be edited if I find other words to add in the vocabulary / J'éditerai ce message si je trouve d'autres mots à ajouter dans le vocabulaire.

LAST UPDATE : October 29th 2008, 16:37, Quebec Time.


Last edited by Cornelia on October 29th 2008, 9:37 pm; edited 4 times in total
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Post by Peter April 10th 2006, 11:45 pm

Congratulation !! you did there more than à wonderful job . What did you do ? did you copy all the whole dictionnery or something like that ?

Anyway, you did very, very, well, and this will be pleasent to know how to use the words and the different forms. Well I guest that if some of you all, need a tip or two, well you can always ask me, and if I can't answer strait away, well never mind ......... just leave me a message like last time. Despite the fact that I'm just a member, no worry's I'll help you, If yo ask me to, the better I can.

Regards to all the english team.
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Post by Cornelia July 4th 2006, 7:21 am

French words with two different translations

When French people learn English, one of the main difficulties lies in the fact that many French words have two different translations according to their meaning.

Here's a non-exhaustive list of French words with their translations.

Vol

- Flight (action de voler dans les airs, comme un oiseau ou un avion)
Ex : the bird's flight

- Theft (Action de dérober, "piquer", comme un voleur)
Ex : A theft has been committed in the bank last night



Voler

- to fly (Voler comme un oiseau
Ex : The bird flies in the sky

- To steal (Dérober, piquer un objet, de l'argent, des créations)
Ex : What if someone steals my art?


Parler

- To talk (bavarder, faire un discours)
Ex : I'm talking with Paul about our roadtrip

- To speak (Parler une langue)
Ex : Do you speak English?


Lien

- Bond (lien affectif)
Ex : This bond he has towards her is incredible!

- Link (Terme informatique pour parler des liens internet)
Ex : Copy-paste this link to display your pic


This post will be edited if I find other french words with two translations
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Post by Guest June 26th 2008, 5:53 pm

I am bringing this post back from the "graveyard" because members might need help with english and they will not find it at the bottem of the general discussion forum.

Drag~
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Post by ce-hub June 26th 2008, 6:59 pm

hi im an asian, and much aware of my grammar, just wanted to ask is my grammar right? i just dont know Smile since i speak to everyone base on my thinking not from my learning...
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Post by mamabear June 26th 2008, 7:30 pm

ce-hub wrote:hi im an asian, and much aware of my grammar, just wanted to ask is my grammar right? i just dont know Smile since i speak to everyone base on my thinking not from my learning...
there are just tiny things, nothing that stops anyone from understanding you. I don't think you should change because it is cute, it is like hearing someone talk with a cute accent.
If all English speakers sounded the same, like there would be no strine from OZ or Texan drawl or NY voice from the US, or any of the dialects in the UK, the world would lose its colour. Ce your English is excellent with just a little cute edge, which gives it charm.
A lot of you on here speak better English than I do,we Brits get lazy with our language and often abuse it.
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Post by Guest June 26th 2008, 7:39 pm

I know, there is nothing wrong with most of the peoples english, I just brought this back because it might help someone someday.

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Post by mamabear June 26th 2008, 7:52 pm

You are right of course . It is a geat idea, and some guys do need help, esecially when they have to ask questions on here,
So I will help where I can. Very good
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Post by Guest June 26th 2008, 7:53 pm

im sure most of us will *glares at kilsek*
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Post by Cornelia October 29th 2008, 9:22 pm

I do a little "thread necromancy", in order to make this topic visible for new members who might need help in their English.

EDIT : By the way, I add a new chapter while no one replied yet.

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

I add this chapter for those who want to use comparatives and superlatives in their sentences - J'ajoute ce nouveau chapitre pour ceux qui veulent utiliser des comparatifs et des superlatifs dans leur phrases.

a) Comparatives

When an adjective has two or more syllabs, we generally use this statement :
Superiority : X is more {your adjective} than Y
Inferiority : X is less {your adjective} than Y

Examples :
- Beautiful : Elena is more beautiful than Melanie
- Experienced : Caihlem is more experienced than Luky
- Present : Canceo is less present than Typlo

When an adjective has only one syllab, or a second syllab ended by "y", the rule is different.
For one-syllab adjectives (hard, big, fast, slow, small, etc.), we'll only add -er after the adjective. If the last consonent is preceded by a "i", the consonent is doubled (big => bigger, thin => thinner)
For adjective whose the second syllab is ended by a "y" (crazy, funny, skinny, easy, heavy, etc.), the "y" is replaced by ier.
This rule works only for superiority comparatives.

Examples :
- Old : Cornelia is older than Caihlem
- Funny : The first video is funnier than the second one
- Pretty : Emy is prettier than Lyz
- Crazy : Caihlem is crazier than Jalokim
- Easy : This system is easier to use than this other one.
- Fast : This white horse is faster than this brown horse
- Slow : On my PC, Vista is slower than Ubuntu.
- Big : The left stone is bigger than the right stone

Irregularities : Unlike other one-syllab adjectives, Good and Bad change completely when they're used in a superiority comparative

Examples :
- Good : This host is better than this other one
- Bad : This game is worse than the previous one I played

For inferiority comparatives the less {your adjective} is still applied. You can also use the adjective's antonym instead of the inferiority comparative, if there is any antonym.

Examples :
- Eximma is less old than Caihlem => Eximma is younger than Caihlem
- This version is less good than the previous one => This version is worse than the second one

And now, if you want to compare two things whose quality is equal, you use this statement : X is as {your adjective} as Y
This time, there is no exception

Example :
- GIMP is as good as Photoshop
- Lily is as beautiful as Jamie

b) Superlatives

When an adjective has two or more syllabs, we generally use these statements :
Superiority : The most {your adjective}
Inferiority : The least {your adjective}

Examples :
- Elena is the most beautiful girl I ever seen
- Caihlem is the most experienced of all current staff members
- In my family, Vista is the least appreciated among all OS we tried.

When an adjective has only one syllab or a second syllab ended by a "y", the rule is differnent.
For one-syllab adjectives (big, fast, slow, hard, etc.), we just add -est after the adjective. If the last consonent is preceded by a "i", the consonent is doubled (big => biggest, thin => thinnest)
For adjectives whose the second syllab is ended by a "y", this "y" is replaced by a iest

This works only for superiority superlatives.

Examples :
- Old : This guy was the oldest staff member we ever had
- Funny : This is the funniest video I ever seen !
- Pretty : Emy is the prettiest girl I ever met
- Crazy : Who is the craziest in the staff ?
- Easy : Which system is the easiest to use ?
- Fast : Which horse will be the fastest today ?
- Big : The French support forum is the biggest board among all Forumotino boards.

Irregularities : As well as for comparatives, good and bad change completely when used in a superiority superlative.

Examples :
- Good : This is the best host I ever tried !
- Bad : This is the worst game I ever played !

For inferiority superlatives the least {your adjective} is still applied. You can also use the adjective's antonym instead of the inferiority superlative if there is any antonym.

Examples :
- Eximma is the least old of the Gmod team => Eximma is the youngest of the Gmod team.
- This version is the least good than the previous one => This version is the worst of all versions I ever tried !

In superlatives, there is no equality since superlatives are absolute while comparatives are relative.


Last edited by Cornelia on October 30th 2008, 2:59 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : Added a chapter)
Cornelia
Cornelia
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Language : I'M NOT A TECHIE OR A MOD, SO QUIT SENDING ME PMS FOR TECHIE STUFF OR LOST PASSWORDS !!!
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